Glossary

ADHD
Disorder of attention, concentration, and hyperactivity.
antipsychotic
Medication used for psychosis, agitation, mood and sleep.
bipolar episode
Episodes can be manic, hypomanic, depressed or mixed.
cognitive behavioral
A treatment developed by Aaron Beck in which patients examine and revise their assumptions and self-talk.
comorbidity
The presence of more than one disorder or disease, in addition to the primary disorder or disease.
cyclothymia, cyclothymic
A milder form of bipolar disorder in which people alternate between periods of hypomanic symptoms and periods of mild/moderate depressive symptoms. People with cyclothymia rarely have lengthy periods of feeling well, but their symptoms are never severe enough to warrant the diagnosis of bipolar I or bipolar II.
depressive mixed
Simultaneously anxious, speedy, irritable, restless, and sad, with fatigue and insomnia.
DSM-IV
The primary manual for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders.
dysthymia
Ongoing state of sadness.
hypomania, hypomanic
A milder form of mania.
hyperthymic
Chronically cheerful, overly optimistic, exuberant, extraverted, stimulus seeking, overconfident, meddlesome.
intervention
A psychological or medical treatment.
suicidal ideation
Thinking about killing oneself, even if the plan may not be clear.
manic episode
A period of 1 week or more when a person feels elated, extremely irritable and has decreased need for sleep, grandiosity, rapid speech, increases in energy, increased activity, distractibility, and impulsive or high risk behavior. The symptoms cause problems in functioning or require emergency treatment.
MBCT
Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy - an 8-week group treatment in which participants learn to use mindfulness meditation to cope with negative emotions.
mixed episode
A state in which a person with bipolar disorder is both manic and depressed during the same week.
mood stabilizer
A class of medications that can bring someone down from a manic high or up from a depressive low; examples are lithium, divalproex sodium (Depakote), and lamotrigine (Lamictal).
perinatal
The time before or after a woman gives birth.
pharmacology, pharmacological
Treatment with psychiatric medications. Pharmacotherapy usually means a patient meets with a psychiatrist and receives prescriptions for medications, with dosage adjustments for increased efficacy or to control side effects.
postpartum depression
A 2-week or more period of depression after the birth of a baby, marked by sad mood, loss of interests, extremel fatigue, insomnia (or sleeping too much), changes in appetite, feelings of worthlessness, and often, suicidal thoughts or actions.
prodromal
The period leading up to a recurrence of illness. People who learn about early warning signs of mania are identifying symptoms (such as feelings of restlessness or irritability) that occur during the build-up to mania.
psychosocial
This term is used in three ways: psychosocial stress refers to life events (for example, loss of a job) that can contribute to mood symptoms. Psychosocial functioning refers to a person’s ability to work, socialize, or take care of family members. Psychosocial treatment refers to psychotherapy methods.
psychotic
The state of being out of touch with reality, usually characterized by delusions or hallucinations.
unipolar
The person switches from normal mood to one pole of illness, usually depression.  A person with recurrent major depression has unipolar depression, whereas a person who switches from depressed to manic has bipolar disorder.